Cover Image for 7. Synthesis maps of pressures and threats

7. Synthesis maps of pressures and threats

Bruno Kelly / Amazônia Real, 2020.
From a regional perspective, most of the Amazon territory in all the countries is under some sort of pressure, with a prevalence of moderate and high indices. The areas with the highest pressure are located in the peripheral areas of the biome: in areas of mountains and foothills located to the west, especially in Ecuador; in northern Venezuela; and, to the south, in Brasil.

More than half the units of analysis in Amazonia (65.8%) are subject to some type of fixed or ongoing pressure: whether extractive activities such as oil and mineral exploitation, development of road infrastructure, agricultural activity, or the presence of hydroelectric plants. It is important to note that this analysis does not include forest roads, timber concessions, coca and oil palm cultivation, or illegal activities. Ecuador is seen to be the most dramatic case, with 88% of its Amazonian territory affected by some type of pressure, with 18% classified as “high” and 45% as “very high”, totalling 63%.

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Map: Synthesis of pressures in Amazonia
On the other hand, some type of threat hangs over 27% of Amazonia. Of those areas affected, 9% show “moderate” indices of intensity, 12% “high” and 2% “very high”. Perú stands out as the country with the largest portion of its Amazon region threatened (42%), registering "very high" rates of threats from both road development and hydroelectric projects, as well as from oil exploitation.

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Map: Synthesis of threats in Amazonia
In the case of Brasil (27%) and Venezuela (18%), hydroelectric and mining projects are threats that also fall into the “very high” category. Bolivia reflects an extensive area of interest mainly in hydrocarbons, followed by mining and hydroelectric plants. In 15% of the territory the threat is “medium to very high”. Colombia does not show "very high" threats; however, the possibility of mining and oil exploitation remains in its Amazonian territory.