9. Synthesis map of symptoms and consequences in ITs and PNAs
Lalo de Almeida, 2016.
The analysis also considered the symptoms and consequences of environmental degradation caused by human activity in these protected areas, where degradation is marked by changes in natural cover and the loss of natural resources. Of the affected areas in Amazonia, 38% is found in the PNAs and ITs categories, but their role in conservation is shown by their hosting 72% of the areas free of these impacts in the region.
When analyzing the levels of environmental degradation in protected areas of Amazonia (map 23), we can observe that 64% of PNAs and ITs in the region are free of symptoms and consequences caused by human activity. Most protected areas with signs of degradation show a “very low” rate (18%), the remainder being “low” (7%), “moderate” (6%), “high” (3%) and “very high” (1%). On a country basis, Bolivia and Ecuador rank as the most worrying countries, with only 46% and 50% of their protection areas free of symptoms and consequences of human activity.
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Map: Symptoms and consequences in ITs and PNAs
Broken down by type of protected area, 67% of PNAs in Amazonia do not show symptoms or consequences of anthropogenic activity. Most (15%) of the area affected in this category of protected area registers “very low” indices, while 6% shows “low” intensity, a further 6% is “moderate” and 3% qualifies as “high” and 1% “very high”.
Bolivia has 46% of its PNAs showing some sign of degradation, most of them falling into the “moderate” index. Ecuador is the second most affected country, with 40% of its PNAs registering symptoms and consequences.
On the other hand, although 67% of ITs do not show symptoms or consequences of human activity, 5% of these territories in Amazonia already show, in more than half their area, signs of degradation categorized as “very high” and “high”. The main countries that show symptoms and consequences within their ITs in their Amazon region are Perú, Bolivia and Ecuador. Bolivia is the most affected country, where about 56% of its indigenous lands present some symptom or consequence of anthropogenic action.